Seeing as how one topic on last years FMS2020 wrap-up with Jim Handy was the rise of computational storage and it’s been a long time (see GreyBeards talk with Scott Shadley at NGD Systems) since we discussed this, we thought it time to check in on the technology. So we reached out to Dr. Tong Zhang, Chief Scientist and Co-founder, ScaleFlux to see what’s going on. ScaleFlux is seeing rising adoption of their product in hyper-scalers as well as large enterprises. Their computational storage is a programmable FPGA based 4TB and 8TB SSD.
Tong was very knowledgeable on current industry trends (Moore’s law slowing & others) that have created an opening for computational storage and other outboard compute. He also is well versed into how some of the worlds biggest customers are using the technology to work faster and cheaper in their data centers. Listen to the podcast to learn more.
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At the start Tong mentioned Alibaba’s use of ScaleFlux’s transparent, line speed, outboard encryption/decryption and compression/decompression. And, depending on the data, they can see compression ratios far exceeding 2:1. As such, customers not only benefit from a cheaper $/GB but can also see better NAND endurance and higher performance.
Hosts can do compression and encryption but doing so takes a lot of CPU cycles. It turns out that compression is more compute intensive than encryption. Tong said that most modern cores can encrypt/decrypt at 1GB/sec but, depending on the compression algorithm, can only compress at 40 to 100MB/sec. But in any case doing so on the host consumes a lot of CPU instruction cycles. With ScaleFlux, they can compress and decompress at PCIe bus speeds.
Most storage controllers that offer compression/decompression must have some sort of LBA (logical block address) virtualization. Because while the host may be writing 512 or 4096 byte blocks, what’s actually written to the NAND is more like, 231 or 1999 bytes. So packing these odd, variable length blocks into NAND blocks can become a problem. But most SSDs already have a flash translation layer (FTL) where LBA addresses are mapped, over time, to different physical NAND page/block addresses. ScaleFlux has combined support for LBA virtualization and FTL into the same process and by doing so, they reduce IO overhead to perform better.
ScaleFlux’s drive is an NVMe SSD, which already supports great native response times but when you are transferring 1/2 or less of (compressed) data from the host onto NAND, you can reduce latencies even more. .
Although their current generation product is based on TLC NAND they are working on the next generation which will support QLC. And the benefits of writing and reading less data should also help QLC endurance and performance.
Although ScaleFlux is seeing great adoption with just outboard transparent compression and encryption, there is more that could be done, For example,
- Filtering query’s at the drive rather than at the host. If customers can send a search key/phrase or other filtering request directly to the drive, the drive can pass over all it’s data and send back just the data that matches that filter request.
- Transcoding and other data format changes. Although transcoding makes a lot of sense to do outboard, Tong also mentioned format changes. We asked him to clarify and he said consider a row based database that needs to be accessed in columnar format. If the drive could change the format from one to the other, it opens up more analytics tool sets.
At the moment, ScaleFlux engineering teams are the ones that program the FPGA to perform outboard functionality. But in a future release, they plan to adding ARM cores in a SoC, which can handle more general purpose outboard functionality as code.
Because of this added complexity of compression, encryption and other outboard logic, we asked Tong what power loss protection was available at the drive level. Tong assured us that once data has been received by their device, it is maintained across a power failure with CAPs and other logic to offload it.
Tong also mentioned that Intel, AWS and the NVMe standard committee are looking at adding some computational storage support into the NVMe standard, so applications and host software can invoke and maybe modify outboard functionality on the fly. Sort of like loading containers of functionality to run on the fly on an SSD drive.
Dr. Tong Zhang, Chief Scientist and Co-fonder, ScaleFlux
Dr. Tong Zhang is a well-established researcher with significant contributions to data storage systems and VLSI signal processing. Dr. Zhang is responsible for developing key techniques and algorithms for ScaleFlux’s Computational Storage products and exploring their use in mainstream application domains.
He is currently a Professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). His current and past research span over database, filesystem, solid-state and magnetic data storage devices and systems, digital signal processing and communication, error correction coding, VLSI architectures, and computer architecture.
He has published over 150 technical papers at prestigious USENIX/IEEE/ACM conferences and journals with the citation h-index of 36, and has served as general and technical program chairs for several premier conferences. Among his many research accomplishments, he made pioneering contributions to establishing flash memory signal processing and enabling practical implementation of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codecs. He received two best paper awards and has over 20 issued/pending US patent applications.
He holds BS/MS degrees in EE from the Xi’an Jiaotong University, China, and PhD degree in ECE from the University of Minnesota.