Ray’s known David Kanter (@TheKanter), Executive Director, MLCommons, for quite awhile now and has been reporting on MLCommons Mlperf AI benchmark results for even longer. MLCommons releases new benchmark results each quarter and this last week they released new Data Center Training (v3.0) and new Tiny Inferencing (v1.1) results. So, the GreyBeards thought it was time to get a view of what’s new in AI benchmarking and what’s coming later this year.
David’s been around the startup community in the Bay Area for a while now and sort of started at MLPerf early on as a technical guru working on submissions and other stuff and worked his way up to being the Executive Director/CEO. The big news this week from MLCommons is that they have introduced a new training benchmark and updated an older one. The new one simulates training GPT-3 and they also updated their Recommendation Engine benchmark. Listen to the podcast to learn more.
MLCommons is an industry association focused on supplying recreatable, verifiable benchmarks for machine learning (ML) and AI which they call MLperf benchmarks. Their benchmark suite includes a number of different categories such as data center training, HPC training, data center inferencing, edge inferencing, mobile inferencing and finally tiny (IoT device) inferencing. David likes to say MLperf benchmarks range from systems consuming Megawatts (HPC, literally a supercomputer) to Microwatts (Tiny) solutions.
The challenge holding AI benchmarking back early on was a few industry players had done their own thing but there was way to compare one to another. MLcommons was born out of that chaos, and sought to create a benchmarking regimen that any industry player could use to submit AI work activity and would allow customers to compare their solution to any other submission on a representative sample of ML model training and inferencing activity
MLCommons has both an Open and Closed class of submissions. For the Closed class, submissions have a very strict criteria for submission. These include known open source AI models and data, accuracy metrics that training and inferencing need to hit, and reporting a standard set of metrics information for the benchmark. All of which need to be done in order to create a repeatable and verifiable submission.
Their Open class is a way for any industry participant to submit whatever model they would like, to whatever accuracy level they want, and it’s typically used to benchmark new hardware, software or AI models.
As mentioned above MLcommons training benchmarks use accuracy specification that must be achieved to have a valid submission. Benchmarks also have to be run 3 times. All submissions list hardware (CPU and Accelerators) and software (AI framework). And these could range from 0 accelerators (e.g. CPU only with no GPUs) to 1000’s of GPUs.
The new GPT-3 model is a very complex AI model, that seemed until yesterday, unlikely to ever be benchmarked. But apparently the developers at MLCommons (and their industry partners) have been working on this for some time now. In this round of results there were 3 cloud submissions and 4 on prem submissions for GPT-3 training.
GPT-3, -3.5 & -4 are all OpenAI solutions which power their ChatGPT text transformer Large Language Model (LLM). GPT-3 has 175B parameters and was trained on TBs of data covering web crawls, book crawls, official documentation, code, etc. OpenAI said, at GPT-3 announcement, it took over $10M and months to train.
MLcommons GPT-3 benchmark is not a full training run of GPT-3 but uses a training checkpoint, trained on a subset of data used for the original GPT-3 training, Checkpoints are used for long running jobs (training sessions, weather simulations, fusion energy simulations, etc) and copy all internal state of a job/system while its running (ok, quiesced) at some interval (say every 8hrs, 24 hrs, 48hrs, etc), so that in case of a failure, one could just restart the activity from the last checkpoint rather than the beginning.
MLCommons GPT-3 checkpoint has been trained on a 10B token data set. The benchmark starts with loading this checkpoint and trains on an even smaller subset of the data for GPT-3 and trains to achieve the accuracy baseline.
Accuracy for text transformers is not as simple as other models (correct image classification, object identification, etc.) and uses “perplexity”. Hugging Face defines perplexity as “the exponentiated average negative log-likelihood of a sequence.”
The 4 on-premises submissions for GPT-3 using 45 minutes (768 NVIDIA H100 GPUs) to 442 minutes (64 Habana Guadi2 GPUS). The 3 cloud submissions all used NVIDIA H100 GPUs and ranged from 768 (@47 minutes to train) to 3584 GPUs (@11 min. to train).
Aside from DataCenter training, MLcommons also released a new round of Tiny (IoT) inferencing benchmarks. These generally use smaller ARM processors and no GPUs with much smaller AI models such as Keyword spotting (“Hey SIRI”), visual wake words (door opening), image classification, etc.
We ended our discussion with me asking David why there was no storage oriented MLcommons benchmark. David said creating a storage benchmarks for AI is much different than inferencing or training benchmarks. But MLCommons has taken this on and now have a storage MLcommons series of benchmarks for storage that uses emulated accelerators.
At the moment, anyone with a storage system can submit MLcommons storage benchmark. After some time, MLcommons will only allow submissions from member companies but early on it’s open for all.
For their storage benchmarks, rather than using accuracy as benchmark criteria they use keeping (emulated) accelerators X% busy. This way storage support of the MLops activities can be isolated from the training and inferencing.
The GreyBeards eagerly anticipate the first round of MLcommons storage benchmark results. Hopefully coming out later this year.